Any form of energy that can endanger people, including electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, radioactive, thermal, and gravitational energy, is referred to as hazardous energy. Control of Hazardous Energy - Lockout and Other Methods (CSA Z460-20) Some energy sources, like electricity, heat from a furnace, or something that might fall, are readily apparent. Others could be concealed dangers like a spring that is tightly wound or the air pressure in a system. In this document, ""energy"" refers to anything that can give a system the power it needs to function. Equipment, processes, and/or machinery are all referred to as systems.
What kinds of energy are there?
The most prevalent type of energy used in workplaces is electrical energy. It can be stored in batteries or capacitors or made available in real time through power lines. People can be harmed by electricity in one of three ways: by electric shock. through secondary harm. via contact with an electrical arc. For further information, consult the Electrical Safety - Basic Information OSH Answers document. A pressured liquid's potential energy is known as hydraulic potential energy. The fluid can be used to move large items, machinery, or equipment when it is put under pressure. Automotive car lifts, injection molding equipment, power presses, and automobile brake systems are a few examples. Individuals may be crushed or struck by moving machinery, equipment, or other objects when hydraulic energy is discharged uncontrollably. Risks of exposure to hydraulic oil or other pressurized liquids that could cause skin-cutting injuries are among the potential injuries. Pressurized air contains energy that is known as pneumatic potential energy. Compressed air is typically used in pneumatic systems to power machinery. Spraying tools, pressure washers, rock drills, and riveters are a few examples. Individuals may be crushed or injured by machinery, equipment, or other items like hoses when pneumatic energy is discharged uncontrollably. The energy released during a chemical reaction is known as chemical energy. Normally, the energy is released as heat, but it can also be released in other ways, like pressure. An explosion or fire is a frequent outcome of dangerous chemical reactions. Thermal energy is generated by heat sources, flames, explosions, and items with extreme temperatures. Burns, scales, dehydration, frostbite, etc. are examples of common wounds. Ionizing radiation, low-frequency electromagnetic radiation, optical radiation, and radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation are all types of radiation. Skin burns, acute radiation syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and changes to the genetic material, which could result in cancer, are just a few of the effects that can occur depending on the radiation dose and duration of exposure. The energy associated with an object's mass and distance from the earth is known as its gravitational potential energy (or ground). The gravitational potential energy of an item increases with weight and with distance from the earth. The gravitational potential energy of a 1 kg weight held 2 meters above the ground will be more than a 1 kg weight maintained 1 meter above the earth, for instance. The energy held within a subject under tension is known as mechanical energy. A compressed or coiled spring, for instance, will have energy stored in it that will be released as movement when the spring expands. The object may crush or strike a person as a result of the mechanical energy release. It is crucial to realize that each of these energy kinds can be categorized as either a secondary energy source or a major energy source (energy that can reside or remain in the system). The power source used to carry out work is the primary energy source. When released, residual or stored energy, which is energy that isn't being used by the system, can make work happen. For instance, when a valve is closed on an air- or liquid-powered system, the system is cut off from its main source of energy. Any air or liquid that is still present in the system has a lingering amount of energy. In this case, bleeding out the liquid or venting the air would be examples of removing the leftover energy. The system is not de-energized until this leftover energy is eliminated, and if work were to start, an injury could result from the unexpected and inadvertent release of hazardous energy. There could be more than one sort of energy within a system that needs to be controlled, and the residual or stored energy might not be the same as the main energy source. An overhead roll-up door, for instance, might possess both mechanical energy (from the roll-up mechanism) and gravitational potential energy. Should the roll-up mechanism malfunction, the mechanism's stored energy (such as a spring) would be released, and the roll-up door might also tumble to the earth due to gravity. Workplaces may utilize a manual blocking mechanism for all roll-up or garage-style doors to control this potential energy. Injury or incidents may occur if stored energy is not assessed and released effectively. Isolating the system from its main power supply and residual energy is a step in hazardous energy control.
Are hazardous energy control and lockout the same thing?
Although they are occasionally used synonymously, lockout and hazardous energy control are not the same thing. The use of procedures, strategies, systems, and methods to safeguard personnel from harm caused by the unintentional release of hazardous energy is referred to as ""hazardous energy control,"" which is a broad word. Lockout is the placement of a lock and tag on an energy-isolating device in accordance with an established procedure. It indicates that the energy-isolating device is not to be operated until removal of the lock or tag. Therefore, lockout is one way in which hazardous energy control can be achieved. See the Lockout/Tag out OSH Answers document for more information.
What is the purpose of a hazardous energy control program?
In most cases, equipment or systems will have safety devices built in. These safety devices include barrier guards and safeguarding devices to help protect workers during normal operations. However, during maintenance or repairs, these devices may have to be removed or by-passed. In these situations, a hazardous energy control program is needed. A hazardous energy control program is used to maintain worker safety by preventing: Unintended release of stored energy. Unintended start-up. Unintended motion. Contact with a hazard when guards are removed or safety devices have been by-passed or removed.
What methods, other than lockout, exist to control hazardous energy?
The method of hazardous energy control will depend on whether the task can be performed when the equipment is de-energized or not. If a full zero-energy state is possible, then a lockout program should be developed. Lockout is generally viewed as the most reliable way to protect an individual from hazardous energy because the system is brought to a zero-energy state. When a system is in a zero-energy state, the hazard has been eliminated; thus, no hazardous energy exists. In some cases, using lockout is not practical and other controls must be implemented to effectively reduce the risk of the hazard. Other methods include restraint systems, such as using blocks, chocks, pins, bars, chains, or cribbing. In some cases, isolation may be used such an inflatable bladder, or blanks and blinds to isolate workers performing tasks in or on a pipe. Always conduct a risk assessment of each task to identify all hazards and methods to be used as controls. Once the risk assessment for other control methods is completed, the other control methods can be selected and implemented. However, if an adequate level of risk cannot be achieved, then lockout will be the main method of control. Creating a zero-energy state and following a lockout program is the preferred method.
What are the elements involved in a Hazardous Energy Control Program?
Hazardous energy control programs involve the following elements: Identify sources of hazardous energy in the workplace Perform a hazard and risk assessment for the sources of hazardous energy Implement energy controls and procedures Provide training Inspect and audit program and controls 1. Identify Sources of Hazardous Energy Determine all types of hazardous energy within your workplace that should be covered by the program. Next, gather documentation from the manufacturer or designer of each system about: Where energy isolating devices are located and procedures for their use. Step-by-step procedures for servicing or maintaining the system. How to safely address malfunctions, jams, misfeeds, or other planned and unplanned interruptions in operations. How to install, move, and remove any or all parts of the system safely. This information will allow you to understand how the system was intended to be used, and will provide you with recommendations on how the tasks can be performed safely. 2. Perform a Hazard and Risk Assessment A hazard analysis is performed by examining all the intended uses of the system from the perspective of both the manufacturer and the user. List all tasks and steps required to accomplish the task. This analysis should also include any hazards related to any possible misuse of the system. When performing the task identification, at a minimum, consider the following categories: Machine/process set-up. Teaching and programming of machinery. Testing and start-up. All modes of operation. Product feeding into machine/process. Product takeoff from machine/process. Process/tool changeover. Normal stoppages and restart. Unscheduled stoppages (control failure or jam) and restart. Emergency stoppages and restart. Unexpected start-up. Fault-finding and troubleshooting. Cleaning and housekeeping. Planned maintenance and repair. Unplanned maintenance and repair. Based upon the information gathered, evaluate the likelihood and exposure of each hazard. The risk assessment should outline the possible hazards, and the associated risk of each hazard. A recommended process for identifying hazards and their associated risk is outlined in both the CSA Z460-20 """"Control of Hazardous Energy - Lockout and Other Methods"""" and the ISO 12100:2010 (R2015) """"Safety of Machinery - General Principles for Design - Risk Assessment and Risk Reduction"""" standards. The hazard and risk assessment will outline all situations where a worker could be exposed to hazards. This assessment includes answering the “what if’s” questions. For example, what if a barrier or guard was removed or by-passed? Or, what if a hydraulic hose releases pressurized fluid when it is removed during maintenance? By considering scenarios of what could happen, controls can be implemented for all possible situations. . 3. Implement Controls and Procedures The controls required will follow what hazards and risks were identified during the risk assessment. The risk assessment will also assist in prioritizing controls. Controls must be implemented using the hierarchy of controls. When the hazard cannot be eliminated, safeguards or other engineering controls can be installed. Administrative controls include altering the way the work is completed or introducing safe work procedures. 4. Provide Training Employers must communicate the hazardous energy control program with workers and provide education and training on their roles and responsibilities within the program. The training should cover all types of hazardous energy they may encounter throughout their work and how it can be controlled. All training should be documented and recorded. 5. Periodic Inspections and AuditsFollow-up is important to determine if the program is effective. Employers, supervisors, and health and safety committee members should include hazardous energy control on their inspection checklists. Formal audits may be helpful to ensure there are no gaps in the program and that all workers are trained on the control program. The program should be reviewed regularly, or more frequently if new equipment or machinery is introduced and if there is a change in process, standards, or legislation.""" - https://www.affordablecebu.com/