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Toxin West Nile

Toxin West Nile
"""Describe the West Nile virus.

A member of the Flavivirus genus, the West Nile virus is spread by infected mosquitoes. In Africa, Eastern Europe, West Asia, and the Middle East, the West Nile virus is frequently discovered in people, birds, and other animals. In 2002, the virus was first discovered in Canada.

How is the West Nile virus spread?

A mosquito bite from an infected animal transmits the West Nile virus to people. When mosquitoes feed on diseased birds, they become infected. When biting to draw blood, infected mosquitoes can potentially spread the West Nile virus to both people and animals. Between the middle of April and the first hard frost in late September or early October in Canada, there is a higher chance of getting bitten by a mosquito. In addition, mosquito activity is typically highest at dawn and evening. Blood transfusions and organ or tissue transplants both have the potential to spread the West Nile virus. The virus can be transmitted to unborn children by pregnant mothers, and it can also spread through breast milk. Additionally, needlestick wounds can cause laboratory personnel to contract the West Nile virus. There is no proof that the virus can spread from person to person contact or through blood donation. Additionally, there is no proof that handling sick birds or other animals like cats, dogs, or horses can cause a person to contract the virus. With the aid of its collaborators, the Public Health Agency of Canada monitors the West Nile virus in Canada. Please visit the surveillance page for more on current statistics.

What kind of birds are West Nile virus carriers?

In North America, the West Nile virus has been identified in more than 150 different bird species. When afflicted, certain animals might not exhibit any overt symptoms of sickness. Others, like crows, blue jays, magpies, and ravens, can become ill more frequently and even pass away. People who discover a dead bird should get in touch with their neighborhood public health authority. Obtain information from the Canadian Wildlife Health Cooperative about reporting a dead bird in your area. There is no proof that handling a deceased infected bird will cause one to contract the virus. To prevent blood-to-blood contact, it might be best to keep your hands off of deceased animals. Wearing gloves and double-bagging the bird are recommended while handling dead birds. It is advised to wash hands with soap and water after handling deceased birds.

What signs do West Nile virus infections show?

2 to 15 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito, a person may start experiencing symptoms of West Nile virus infection. Most infections are minor, and most infected individuals show no symptoms at all. Mild flu-like symptoms such a fever, headache, and body aches can occur in some persons. A skin rash and enlarged lymph nodes may also appear in certain people. Any age group is susceptible to the negative health impacts of West Nile virus infection. However, serious infections can occur in the elderly and individuals with weakened immune systems. The brain, spinal cord, or brain lining may be severely infected (encephalitis) (meningitis). Severe headache, high temperature, stiff neck, nausea, confusion, muscle weakness, paralysis, coma, and in some circumstances, death are possible symptoms in these situations.

Do West Nile virus infections have long-term effects?

Since West Nile virus is a newly discovered illness, the long-term implications are not yet fully known. As of now, the majority of people who experience severe symptoms and health impacts fully recover. Others, however, deal with chronic health issues like memory loss, concentration issues, exhaustion, headaches, confusion, and depression. Why some people recover while others experience varied degrees of health issues is unknown.

Is it possible to treat West Nile virus infection?

For West Nile virus infection, there is no specific treatment. Many of the infection's symptoms and side effects, meanwhile, are treatable. West Nile virus has no human vaccine. Infected individuals gain immunity that is thought to last a lifetime.

How is the presence of the West Nile virus detected?

The signs of West Nile virus infection are the first thing clinicians check for. The infection is confirmed by blood tests. They are performed on two different blood samples that were drawn roughly three weeks apart.

Which professions are vulnerable to the West Nile Virus?

Outdoor workers are among those who may be at risk for contracting the West Nile virus.

individuals who gather dead birds.

Veterinarians.

laboratory personnel.

What kind of safety measures should employees take?

Clothing for outdoor workers should include long sleeve shirts, long pants, socks, and hats. Wear light-coloured clothing as it is less attractive to mosquitoes. Since mosquitoes can bite through thin clothing, they should spray their garments with an authorized insect repellent. Always read the entire label carefully before using insect repellents. Persons involved in collecting dead birds should use gloves and double bag the specimen. After handling dead birds, people should wash their hands with soap and water. Veterinarians are advised to use their usual personal protective equipment such as gowns, gloves, masks, and eye protection. Laboratory workers should follow the recommendations of the """"West Nile Virus - Pathogen Safety Data Sheet - Infectious Substances"""" produced by the Public Health Agency of Canada.

How can we prevent West Nile virus infection?

Prevention and control of West Nile virus is best accomplished by implementing appropriate mosquito control measures such as eliminate or reduce areas of standing water (e.g. bird bath, open rain barrel), and taking appropriate personal precautions.

What are the measures to control mosquitoes?

Provincial and local health authorities are responsible for deciding whether to use pesticides to control the number of mosquitoes in the area. Many municipalities use larvicides in standing water and catch basins where mosquitoes lay their eggs. For example, methoprene, a chemical larvicide may be used in catch basins and Bti (bacillus thuringiensis israelensis), a biological larvicide may be used in standing water. With this strategy, officials hope to dramatically reduce the number of mosquitoes. The Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) Health Canada has registered both methoprene and Bti for use in Canada. As part of the registration process the products undergo a strict scientific assessment to determine whether they are safe.

How can people control mosquitoes around homes?

Mosquitoes lay their eggs in standing water. Here are some ways to reduce mosquito breeding sites around homes: Remove water collecting on pool covers, garbage cans, etc. Turn over wading pools after use or change the water regularly. Cover groundwater barrels. Change water in bird baths and pet or livestock water dishes regularly. Chlorinate your swimming pool according to manufacturer's directions. Chlorinate ornamental ponds or consider getting fish that will eat mosquito larvae. Remove unused items (like old tires, buckets, pots, toys, pails, pet dishes, etc.) that can collect water.

What kind of precautions should people take?

People should consider staying indoors at dawn, dusk, and in the early evening, which are peak mosquito biting times. If you are outdoors during these times, wear light-coloured, long-sleeved shirts and long pants. If you choose to use an insect repellent always read the entire label carefully and follow the label directions. The Pest Management Registry Agency has registered seven different active ingredients for use in Canada as personal insect repellents. Icaridin: It is a personal insect repellent for application on human skin. Health Canada states that its mode of action is not fully understood. One hypothesis is that icaridin affects arthropod olfactory neurons, resulting in their inability to detect host attractants. Another is that the repellent evaporates from the skin into the air, forming a layer of scent that camouflages the attractants (carbon dioxide and lactate) emitted by the human host, and therefore the arthropod cannot find the host. These products cannot be used on infants younger than 6 months old. Permethrin: Permethrin-treated clothing is approved and available for adults including pregnant women but is not available for people under the age of 16. Adults wearing permethrin-treated clothing may touch or hug young children, but should avoid prolonged contact such as carrying a young child who may suckle or chew on the fabric. p-Menthane-3,8-diol and related oil of lemon eucalyptus compounds: Like icaridin, the mode of action is not known, but it appears the product may repel mosquitoes. It can be applied two times per day. These products cannot be used on children under three years of age. Metofluthrin: Clip-on devices containing metofluthrin repel mosquitoes. Children should not replace refill disks. Soybean oil: Products containing soybean oil provide protection against mosquitoes. Citronella oil: These products provide between 30 minutes to two hours protection against mosquitoes. These products cannot be used on infants or toddlers. DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide): Insect repellents containing DEET can be used safely when applied as directed and in the right concentration, depending on age. As stated by the Government of Canada, the right concentration of DEET for: adults and children older than 12 years old is up to 30% children aged 2 to 12 years is up to 10% (you can apply the product up to 3 times daily) children aged 6 months to 2 years old is up to 10% (you should not apply the product more than once a day) For children younger than 12 years old, do not use a DEET product on a daily basis for more than a month. For infants younger than 6 months old, do not use an insect repellent containing DEET. Instead, use a mosquito net when babies are outdoors in a crib or stroller.

Where can I get more information about West Nile virus and the use of mosquito repellents?

For more information about West Nile virus, mosquito control, and safety tips on using personal insect repellents visit the Health Canada and Public Health Agency of Canada web sites."""
 

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"Toxin West Nile" was written by Mary under the Health category. It has been read 22 times and generated 0 comments. The article was created on and updated on 15 January 2023.
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