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At a typical granite stone crushing plant, raw material from a hopper at a dumping station is carried by a conveyor belt to a screening deck. The screening deck removes oversized material (large clay balls, roots, very large rocks, etc.), separates sand from gravel, and then separates the gravel into different sizes. Spray bars wash the gravel as it passes through the screening deck.
Large stones then go to log washers, while medium size material (chat and/or pea gravel) is carried to a screw. The large stone, after emerging from the log washer, and the finer material, after emerging from the screw, pass through separate final rinse stations on the way to storage areas. Transportation to a storage area may be by a fixed conveyor system, a radial stacker system, or an extendable belt conveyor system. A radial stacker is a conveyor system that rotates from a fixed pivot point, and stores the conveyed material in an arcshaped stockpile. The extendable belt conveyor system has the capability of lengthening or shortening itself by moving the head section. The head section is mounted on wheels, and moves on rails, which allows the conveyor to supply several stockpiles, hoppers, or silos.
Sand, after being separated on a screening deck, flows to a classifier, where it is washed and sized. The sand is then carried by a screw, which separates the sand from the water, to a conveyor belt, which carries it to a storage area. Water that is used in the plant is pumped from a freshwater pond. The discharged water is then pumped into a settling pond.
A crushed stone plant differs somewhat from a sand and gravel plant. Raw material is brought from a quarry to a primary crusher by rear dump haul trucks. Some primary crushers are fed by wobblers, which are chain driven conveying systems with eccentric rollers. After primary crushing, material is conveyed by belt to a scrubber for washing. The scrubber is a cylindrical, rotary device with internal screens and auger type vanes that carry the material through the scrubber. Fine material is separated from the coarse material in the scrubber. The fine material is sent to a settling pond. The coarse material is sent to a surge pile, and then to a primary screening deck. Oversized material is carried from the primary screening deck to secondary crushers, and is then returned to the primary screening deck to be separated into desired products. A crushed stone plant contains a series of screening decks, crushers, and final rinse screening stations. Finished product travels through a final rinse stage, and is then stored in silos, bins, or stockpiles.
A sand and gravel, or crushed stone, plant consists of a number of interdependent production processes. Therefore, it is important to know how the plant operates in order to prevent a massive pile-up of material at a transfer point during plant start-up.
An improper start-up sequence can damage plant equipment, and also increase the risk of injury. Fresh-water, sand, and other pumps are started first. Other plant equipment must be started in reverse order of material flow, beginning with the finished product conveyor, and working back through the primary hopper feeder belt.
In addition to following the proper start-up sequence, the person starting the plant must take every precaution to ensure that other people are clear of equipment before the equipment is started.