Lockout is described as the """"installation of a lockout device on an energy-isolating equipment in accordance with an established method"""" in the Canadian standard CSA Z460-20 ""Control of Hazardous Energy - Lockout and Other Methods"".""
""""A mechanical means of locking that uses an individually keyed lock to secure an energy-isolating device in a position that prohibits energization of a machine, piece of equipment, or process"" is referred to as a ""lockout device."" One method of managing hazardous energy is lockout. For information on the many categories of hazardous energy and the necessary components of a control program, see OSH Answers Hazardous Energy Control Programs. Lockout is the process of physically locking a system (a machine, piece of equipment, or process) in a safe mode by isolating energy from it. A manually operated disconnect switch, a circuit breaker, a line valve, or a block can be used as the energy-isolating device (Note: push buttons, selection switches and other circuit control switches are not considered energy-isolating devices). These devices typically contain loops or tabs that can be securely fastened to a stationary object in a safe position (de-energized position). Any device that has the ability to lock the energy-isolating device in a secure position qualifies as the locking device (also known as a lockout device). See Figure 1 below for an illustration of the lock and hasp combination. When a lockout is necessary, the labeling procedure known as ""tag out"" is always employed. A system is ""tagged out"" by employing or adding an information tag or indicator (often a standardized label) that contains the information listed below: The purpose of the lockout/tagout (repair, maintenance, etc.). The time and date the lock/tag was applied. the identity of the authorized individual who secured the lock and tag to the system. Note: The only person who is permitted to remove the lock and tag from the system is the authorized person who installed them. This process aids in ensuring that the system cannot be set up without the consent of the authorized person.
De-energization: What does that mean?
De-energization is a technique used to isolate and cut off a system from an energy source in order to stop the energy from being released. The chance that the system might unknowingly, accidentally, or unwittingly injure a person through the release of harmful energy is reduced by de-energizing the system.
What makes lockout/tag out crucial?
Systems have safety features added to maintain worker safety while these systems are in use, such as barrier guards or guarding devices. If there are additional controls in place to lessen or eliminate the threats, these safety devices may be removed when tasks like maintenance, repair, or setup; or the removal of jams, clogs, or misaligned feeds are undertaken. The danger of injury from the unintentional or accidental release of hazardous energy can be decreased by having a lockout/tag out program and procedures for these situations.
What does a lockout/tag out program aim to achieve?
A lockout/tagout program is used to manage dangerous energy. A lockout policy ought to: Describe the many kinds of The use of hazardous energy at work Energy-isolating apparatus De-energizing mechanisms assist in the selection and upkeep of personal protection equipment, hardware, and protective devices (PPE) Assign responsibility and obligations. Specify lockout protocols for all machinery, tools, and procedures. Decide on the sequences for shutdown, de-energizing, energizing, and startup Specify the education and training needs for authorized and impacted personnel. to have your performance reviewed A successful lockout/tag out procedure will help to avoid: Contact with an unsafe situation while completing actions that call for removing, avoiding, or turning off safety measures. unintentional release of dangerous energy (including stored energy). the unintentional starting up or moving of operations, machinery, or equipment.
Exactly who is in charge of the lockout program?
Exactly who is in charge of the lockout program?
Each employee has a duty to fulfill as part of the lockout program. Generally speaking, management is in charge of developing, reviewing, and modifying lockout procedures and programs. naming the people, things, processes, and things that are a part of the program. provide the tools, supplies, and equipment required for protection. monitoring and measuring program compliance. Distributing safety gear, hardware, and any appliance, and ensuring that staff members utilize it properly, are all responsibilities of supervisors. ensuring that procedures are defined for the machinery, equipment, and processes in their region that are equipment-specific. ensuring that only staff who have received the necessary training execute lockout-related servicing or maintenance. ensuring, when necessary, that workers under their control adhere to the prescribed lockout procedures The following are the responsibilities of authorized individuals: Adhering to established processes. reporting any issues with those procedures, the tools, or the locking and tagging out process. Note: The Canadian standard CSA Z460-20, Control of Hazardous Energy - Lockout and Other Methods contains more information and many informative annexes about various risk assessment, lockout situations, and other control methods.
What information should be included in the lockout procedures and work instructions?
An organization will have one overall lockout program; however for each unique machine or equipment, there will be a detailed procedure or work instruction that describes the steps to control the hazardous energy.
The written lockout procedure should specify: The specific machine, equipment, or process involved in the shutdown and isolation process. The hazardous energy present and the type of energy-isolating or de-energizing devices required. Where the lockout devices are required and how they are installed. The steps for shutting down, isolating, blocking, securing, and relieving stored or residual energy. The steps for placing and removing all lockout devices. How the isolation can be verified. How others in the area will be informed of the lockout and the return into service. Procedures and work instructions identify how the lockout process is to be carried out and may include pictures or images of what is being described.
What are the basic steps of locking and tagging out a system?
Lockout and tag out processes involve more than putting a lock on a switch. They are comprehensive step-by-step processes that involve communication, coordination, and training. Please note the following definitions from CSA Z460-20: Affected person - persons who are not directly involved in the work requiring the hazardous energy control, but who are (or may be) located in the work area. Authorized person - a person who is qualified to engage in hazardous energy control because of knowledge, training, and experience and has been assigned to engage in such control. General steps of a lockout/tag out procedure include: 1. Prepare for Shutdown The authorized person will identify the machine, equipment, or process that requires lockout, which sources of energy are present and must be controlled, and what lockout device will be used. This step involves gathering all required equipment (e.g., lockout devices, tags, etc.). 2. Notify all Affected Personnel The authorized person will communicate the following information to notify affected persons: What is going to be locked/tagged out. Why it is going to be locked/tagged out. For approximately how long the system be unavailable. Who is responsible for the lockout/tag out, if not themselves. Who to contact for more information. This information should also be present on the tag required for the lockout. 3. Equipment Shutdown Follow shutdown procedures (either established by the manufacturer or employer). Equipment shutdown involves ensuring controls are in the off position, and verifying that all moving parts such as flywheels, gears, and spindles have come to a complete stop. 4. Isolation of System (De-energization) Follow the lockout procedure for the identified machine, equipment, or process. Review the following isolation practices for various forms of hazardous energy: Electrical energy - Switch electrical disconnects to the off position. Visually verify that the breaker connections are in the off position. Lock the disconnects into the off position. NOTE: Only disconnect switches or breakers that you are trained or authorized to do so, especially at high voltages. Figure 1: Electrical lockout Hydraulic and pneumatic potential energy – Set the valves in the closed position and lock them into place. Bleed off the energy by slowly opening the pressure relief valves. Some procedures for pneumatic energy control may require that pressure relief valves be locked in the open position. Some procedures for hydraulic energy, for example in lifting devices, may require blocking. Figure 2: Hydraulic and pneumatic lockout Mechanical potential energy - Carefully release energy from springs that may still be compressed. If this is not feasible, block the parts that may move if there is a possibility that the spring can transfer energy to it. Gravitational potential energy - Use a safety block or pin to prevent the part of the system that may fall or move. Chemical energy - Locate chemical supply lines to the system and close and lockout the valves. Where possible, bleed lines and/or cap ends to remove chemicals from the system. For more types of energy, see Hazardous Energy Control Programs. 5. Dissipation (Removal) of Residual or Stored Energy In general, examples include: Electrical energy – To find a specific method to discharge a capacitor for the system, contact the manufacturer for guidance. Many systems with electrical components, motors, or switch gears contain capacitors. Capacitors store electrical energy. In some cases, capacitors hold a charge and may release energy very rapidly. In other cases, capacitors are used to remove spikes and surges to protect other electrical components. Capacitors must be discharged in the lockout process in order to protect workers from electrical shock. Hydraulic and pneumatic potential energy – Setting the valves in the closed position and locking them into place only isolates the lines from more energy entering the system. In most cases, there will still be residual energy left in the lines as pressurized air or fluid. This residual energy can be removed by bleeding the lines through pressure relief valves. Verify depressurization or use flange-breaking techniques. Contact the manufacturer for more specific details, or if no pressure relief valves are available, what other methods are available. Gravitational potential energy – If possible, bring the equipment or machine to ground level. Chemical energy – If available, bleed lines and/or cap ends to remove chemicals from the system. 6. Lockout/Tag Out When the system's energy sources are locked out, there are specific guidelines that must be followed to make sure that the lock cannot be removed, and the system cannot be inadvertently operated. These guidelines include: Each lock should only have one key (no master keys are allowed). All keys must be removed from locks and kept with the person who applied the lock. There should be as many locks on the system as there are people working on it. For example, if a maintenance job requires 3 workers, then 3 locks should be present – each of the individuals must place their OWN lock on the system. Locks can only be removed by those who installed them and should only be removed using a specific process – see step 9 below. Figure 3: Example of multiple locks on a lockout tag 7. Verify Isolation Verify that the system is properly locked out before beginning any work. Verification can take place in several ways: The machine, equipment, or process controls (push buttons, switches, etc.) are engaged or activated and the result is observed. No response means isolation is verified. Return controls to the safe position (off). Visual inspection of: Electrical connections to make sure they are open. Suspended parts are lowered to a resting position or blocked to prevent movement. Other devices that restrain machine or process movement. Valve positioning for double block and bleed (for pipes or ducts) - closing two valves of a section of a line, and then bleeding (or venting) the section of the line between the two closed valves. Presence of solid plate used to absolutely close a line - called line blanking (for pipes or ducts). Any other acceptable method of energy isolation. Testing of the equipment: Test circuitry (should be done by a certified electrician) - Note: equipment with capacitors needs to be cycled until all energy is drained. Check pressure gauges to make sure hydraulic and pneumatic potential energy has been removed. Check temperature gauges to make sure thermal energy has been discharged. Choose the method that will make sure that the energy to the system has been isolated without creating other hazards during the verification. 8. Perform Maintenance or Service Activity Complete the activity that required the system to be locked out. 9. Remove Lockout/Tag out devices To remove locks and tags from a system that is now ready to be put back into service, the following general procedure can be used: Inspect the work area to make sure all tools and items have been removed. Confirm that all employees and persons are safely located away from hazardous areas. Verify that controls are in a neutral position. Remove devices in the opposite order in which they were installed and re-energize the system. Notify affected employees that servicing is completed. *Note: It is good practice to make sure any individual who placed a lock on the system should also be present when the system is re-started. This practice helps make sure those employees working on the system are not in a hazardous area when the machine is restarted."""