Hypothermia, drowning, or fall-related injuries are possible consequences of falling through ice. Being or operating on ice that is damaged or where the ice strength is weakened, overloading the ice, operating on thin ice, or working in the cold are all common hazards. This paper discusses general safety precautions to take when working with or near ice, such as when driving on ice roads. See the resources listed at the end of the document for more information about working on ice. Please refer to the following OSH Answers for details on working in chilly environments: Working in the Cold: General Information About Cold Environments Health Effects of Cold Environments and First Aid Temperature Conditions - Cold
What features does ice over water have?
Sea (salt) water freezes at -2°C, while fresh water does so at 0°C. Numerous variables affect the ice's strength, including: the state of the ice (clear, white, etc.) shade of the ice the ice's thickness there being cracks the temperatures of the ice and air in the days before snow cover If there is moving or still water underneath the ice, its size and depth. For instance, when water freezes, solid, transparent blue ice results, which is typically regarded as the strongest kind of ice. White, opaque ice, commonly referred to as ""snow ice,"" is weak and has a high air content because air becomes trapped in the ice. The following factors can also alter the ice's strength or integrity: moist or dry cracks existing snowbanks thermal expansion fractures or contraction cracks strong winds that cause the ice to warm Water levels fluctuate
How thick of ice must it be before it is suitable for walking or moving around on?
In essence, there is no ice that is completely safe. To be deemed safe for walking or moving about on, ice needs to have a minimum density. The thickness and hardness needed rise in direct proportion to the load's weight and distribution on the ice sheet. Ice changes all the time. The ice's capacity to support a load depends on, in addition to the qualities described above: the dimensions and placement of the load(s) on the ice a parked object without permission on the ice (when a load """"sits"""" or stops on the ice) the vehicle's speed, more traffic, or weights on the ice occurrence of burdens constant-use zones (such as ice crossings, parking areas, bridge sites) reduced ice thickness near shorelines Work Safe Alberta's calculations and thickness tables offer standards for figuring out the ice's thickness, tenacity, and safety. Ice also bends when weight is applied to it. Ice may seem stiff, yet it can bend based on the temperature, stress, and other factors. When the ice is overloaded, it may crack. The cracks may widen and converge under intense stresses, resulting in the collapse of the ice. When working or walking on foot, the ice must be at least 10 cm (4 inches) thick and be clean and of high quality. The ice needs to be at least 15 cm thick if you intend to stay somewhere for longer than 2 hours (6 inches) Check the thickness of the ice by moving in pairs while working. Be at least 10 meters apart and use flotation suits (32 feet) self-rescue tactics and rescue training are not sufficient on their own.
What controls are available for ice work?
Operators should be aware of the following before traveling on ice: the integrity of the ice cover the load that will be placed on the ice, and the minimum ice thickness.
Depending on the risks present, different controls may be used, such as continuously assessing the ice's safety. using water to fill in fractures and letting it freeze utilizing a buffer zone to divert, reroute, or halt traffic in order to reduce the weight burden (e.g., not working within 3 to 5 metres of a cleared area) not driving on the ice until its soundness can be verified and avoiding pressure ridges
What safety precautions should I take when working on ice?
Have a backup plan in place for when a breakthrough occurs. Make a plan on how to save someone who has fallen into the water or ice. Drivers in isolated places should also have the proper survival gear and food rations on hand in case they become trapped for an extended amount of time during a whiteout. Some general pointers are: Plans should be sent to a responsible someone who will follow up, along with a planned route and an expected return time. Carry an axe or ice chisel, ice auger and air temperature thermometer to measure ice thickness and air temperature. For operating at remote areas, a cell phone, satellite phone, or two-way radio is advised. Carry safety gear like rope, ice picks (keep in your pocket for easy access if you end yourself in the water), warning devices (pylons, reflectors, flares, flags) to warn people of danger, and a small personal safety kit that includes a first aid kit, pocket knife, compass, whistle, fire starter kit, etc. Layer your clothing so that you can stay warm and protected from the wind while yet being able to swim or float if you fall through the ice. Wear mitten-style ice claws and a personal flotation device (PFD). Wearing a PFD, however, may interfere with your ability to escape if you are in a moving vehicle. To avoid slipping, put on the proper shoes (crampons, rubber treads). Team up. Never venture out onto the ice by yourself, and avoid it altogether if you think it might be dangerous. such as a fire extinguisher, waterproof matches, a snow shovel, candles, and flashlights. Also see the OSH Answers on Protection from Drowning for more information.
Where can I get more information about working safety on the ice?
More information is available from: Field Guide to Working Safely on Ice Covers. Work Safe Alberta Guidelines for Safe Ice Construction. Northwest Territories Department of Transportation Travelling, Standing and Working on Ice: Workplace Health and Safety Bulletin. Work Safe Alberta Water and Ice. Infrastructure Health and Safety Association (*We have mentioned these organizations as a means of providing a potentially useful referral. You should contact the organization(s) directly for more information about their services. Please note that mention of these organizations does not represent a recommendation or endorsement by CCOHS of these organizations over others of which you may be aware.) """ - https://www.affordablecebu.com/