Psittacosis is a contagious illness that causes flu-like symptoms in moderate form in humans. Any infection or illness brought on by Chlamydia psittaci, one of many bacteria in the genus Chlamydia, is referred to as psittacosis. Humans can catch this illness from infected birds. Other names for psittacosis include parrot illness, ornithosis, and chlamydiosis.
What symptoms of infection are present in birds?
Wild and domestic birds and poultry are infected by Chlamydia psittaci. Parrots, cockatiels, parakeets, macaws, canaries, pigeons, chickens, ducks, and turkeys are among the birds that are susceptible to the virus. The interval between Chlamydia psittaci exposure and disease in caged birds can be anywhere between three days and many weeks. Sleepiness, shivering, weight loss, respiratory issues, and diarrhea are symptoms of sick birds. Birds may be infected latently. Latent implies they seem healthy and do not currently exhibit any symptoms, but they may do so in the future. These infected birds may infrequently or occasionally continually shed the Chlamydia psittaci germs for weeks or months. Birds with a latent infection may shed infectious pathogens due to stress brought on by poor nutrition, crowding, breeding, egg-laying, and extended transit. When shedding takes place, the bacteria are excreted by the sick birds in their feces and nasal secretions, where they can remain infectious for several months.
How do birds infect humans with the disease?
By inhaling the organism when the urine, respiratory discharge, or dried feces of infected birds are aerosolized, humans can contract Chlamydia psittaci (i.e., dispersed in the air as very fine droplets or dust particles). A bite from an infected bird, mouth-to-beak contact, and touching the feathers and tissues of infected birds are among other ways to get exposed.
Can people infect other humans with the disease?
The disease rarely spreads from one individual to another. It can happen when a person is exposed to contagious, aerosolized droplets from another person who is coughing paroxysmically (rapidly and violently).
What symptoms of infection are present in people?
The lungs' defensive mechanisms try to eliminate Chlamydia psittaci bacteria when they are inhaled. The germs that manage to get past this barrier begin an infection that can range in severity from a minor case of the flu to a serious case of pneumonia. The signs and symptoms often show four to fifteen days after exposure, but most frequently after ten days. These symptoms include: fever, chills, cough, weakness or exhaustion, muscle and chest pain, appetite loss, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, sweating, or unusual sensitivity to light. Psittacosis is mostly a lung condition, though it can affect other organs as well. According to some sources, the liver, the lining of the heart cavity, the heart muscle, and the brain can all experience inflammation. The disease can be fatal, and its course is unpredictable. But deadly incidents are uncommon. Fever might last up to three weeks in mild cases.
How are psittacosis diagnosis and care?
A clinician has to know if the patient has been exposed to birds and that the suspected birds are Chlamydia psittaci-infected in order to make an appropriate diagnosis of psittacosis. Laboratory tests can identify the pathogen and determine illness symptoms. Psittacosis patients need to be treated with particular medications. Tetracycline works very well to treat the illness, however penicillin does not work as well.
Which professions are in danger?
Many people who work in occupations where they come into touch with birds run the risk of contracting psittacosis. Bird and pigeon enthusiasts, producers of poultry, processors of poultry, employees of pet stores, quarantine facilities, veterinary clinics, diagnostic labs, keepers of racing pigeons, public health inspectors, breeders of exotic and domestic birds, and dealers in birds are a few of these people.
How can psittacosis be managed?
Proper bird feeding, minimizing overcrowding, and using high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters to decrease the spread of contaminated air are all examples of preventive actions. Daily cage cleaning is crucial. Avoid piling cages. Place cages so that no food, waste, feathers, or other materials may be transferred from one cage to another. Also crucial are clean cages. Pet birds and domestic fowl must have the antibiotic (such as chlortetracycline) added to their feed in order to control the infection. However, for any necessary treatment and follow-up tests, the owner or responsible party should speak with a veterinarian. All diagnosed cases must be reported to the local public health authorities in the majority of countries. Early detection and reporting can aid in locating infection sources and halt the spread of psittacosis. Inform at-risk workers of the disease's potential to spread from infected birds to people. Request that anyone who believes they may be ill get medical attention and tell the doctor about their encounter with birds. The dangers of habitually adding antibiotics to animal feed should be made clear to workers. In such cases, there is a risk that workers who come into touch with the animals or their feed could become infected with germs resistant to antibiotics. The classic diseases are becoming more challenging to treat and manage due to this resistance. Workers should confine diseased birds and make sure these areas are well ventilated. All those tasked with caring for sick birds should put on protective gear, such as gloves, eye protection, a disposable surgical cap, and a respirator with a N95 or higher grade that is properly fitted. It's possible that surgical masks are ineffective at preventing the spread of Chlamydia psittaci. When cleaning cages, avoid dry sweeping, brushing, or vacuuming. After moistening the waste with a disinfectant, it should be taken out of the cage frequently. For disposal, burn the waste or double bag it. Chlamydia psittaci is vulnerable to disinfectants such household bleach (diluted to 1% sodium hypochlorite), isopropyl alcohol, 70% ethanol, glutaraldehyde, and formaldehyde. Items that can't be properly cleaned should be thrown away. A well-ventilated location should be used when using several disinfectants as they are respiratory irritants. Disinfectants shouldn't be combined with any other products."""