Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a microorganism that causes the infectious illness tuberculosis (TB). Sneezing, coughing, or breathing causes the air to become contaminated with tuberculosis. MDR-TB is a type of tuberculosis that is resistant to two or more of the primary ""first-line"" medications used to treat the disease. TB strains that are resistant to two or more ""second-line"" medications are known as extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains. Although it can affect other organs as well, TB primarily affects the respiratory system (lungs). Fever, night sweats, weight loss, chest pain, and coughing are some of the signs of TB. For more details, go to the OSH Answers fact sheet on tuberculosis.
How can drug resistance develop in TB?
If a patient is not treated for a sufficient amount of time, does not take prescription medication as directed, or receives the incorrect meds, tuberculosis may develop a resistance.
Why does MDR-TB provide a greater risk?
In addition to making the disease more difficult to treat, the patient's prolonged infectiousness raises the risk to both the general public and healthcare professionals. MDR-TB also develops in patients who have HIV infection and AIDS, further endangering their health and immune systems. Drug resistance is not made more likely by HIV itself. HIV does hasten the development of active TB disease from TB infection.
Is there an MDR-TB issue in Canada?
The majority of Canadians have a very low chance of contracting tuberculosis (TB), according to the Canadian government. However, given that there are over 1,600 new cases of TB recorded in Canada each year, it is critical to understand the signs and symptoms as well as how to reduce your risk. 19 (1.4%) of the 1,376 TB cases diagnosed in 2014 were MDR-TB cases, according to the Public Health Agency of Canada. Drug-resistant tuberculosis has not yet been recognized as a significant issue in Canada, but the potential exists because of the rise in foreign travel. According to the World Health Organization, ""450 000 people worldwide are expected to have developed MDR-TB in 2012, and 170 000 people are estimated to have died from MDR-TB.""
Can medication resistance be avoided?
The use of directly observed therapy is encouraged by the Canadian Public Health Agency (DOT). Along with a correct medicine prescription, DOT monitoring aids in ensuring that patients take their medications for the recommended durations of time. To significantly lower the possibility of acquiring TB that is resistant to treatment, it is critical to complete the right treatment for TB (which requires at least 6 months).
How can MDR-TB be stopped from spreading?
A number of documents on tuberculosis are available on the website of the Canadian government. The Canadian Tuberculosis Standards (7th edition) Chapter 15: Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis Transmission in Health Care and Other Settings, which can be accessed from this site, describes a suggested Tuberculosis Management Program and lists control procedures in various occupational settings including hospitals, other health care settings, residential and community care settings, and correctional facilities."""