An approach called a job safety analysis (JSA) assists in incorporating recognized safety and health principles and practices into a specific task or job operation. Each fundamental job step in a JSA identifies potential dangers and suggests the safest approach to do the task. Job hazard analysis (JHA) and job hazard breakdown are other names for this process. Some people want to include more aspects of the job than only safety in the study. This strategy is referred to as a whole job analysis. The foundation of methodology is the notion that safety is an essential component of every work, not a distinct thing. Only health and safety-related factors will be taken into account in this publication. A specific work assignment, such as ""running a grinder,"" ""using a pressurized water extinguisher,"" or ""fixing a flat tire,"" is referred to as a ""job"" or ""task"" in everyday speech."" "" JSAs are not appropriate for jobs that are too widely defined, such as ""overhauling an engine,"" or too precisely defined, such as ""placing a car jack.""
What advantages do a job safety analysis offer?
An approach utilized in this illustration is watching a worker do the job in question. The main benefits of this approach are that it does not rely on personal memory and that it stimulates the identification of risks while executing or watching the procedure. It might not be practicable to observe new or infrequently performed jobs. One strategy is to have a group of knowledgeable employees and managers finish the study through conversation. The fact that more people are participating in this strategy leads to a wider base of experience and encourages a more eager acceptance of the resulting work procedure. The health and safety committee's members must take part in this procedure as well. The initial advantages of creating a JSA will become apparent during the preparatory phase. The analysis procedure may reveal hazards that were not previously noticed while also enhancing the participants' job expertise. Raising knowledge of safety and health issues, enhancing worker-supervisor communication, and encouraging adoption of safe work practices are all goals. Regular communication between supervisors and employees can be based on a JSA, or even better, a documented work procedure based on it. It can act as a learning tool for on-the-job training as well as a briefing manual for irregular tasks. It could serve as a benchmark for observations or health and safety inspections. A JSA will help, in particular, with thorough accident investigations.
What are the fundamental four steps?
The four fundamental phases of a JSA are as follows: choosing the task to be examined dividing the task into a series of steps recognizing potential dangers deciding on preventative steps to deal with these dangers
What should you consider when ""selecting the job""?
Ideally, a JSA should be performed on every employment. In some circumstances, the time and effort needed to complete a JSA imposes practical limitations. Another thing to keep in mind is that every JSA will need to be revised whenever tools, supplies, procedures, or the environment change. It is typically required to specify which jobs will be examined for these reasons. This phase guarantees that the most important jobs are evaluated first, even if study of all positions is planned. The following factors should be taken into account while prioritizing job analysis: Accident severity and frequency: employment where accidents happen regularly or infrequently yet cause catastrophic injuries. Potential for serious illnesses or injuries: If you are in a dangerous situation or are exposed to harmful goods, the results could be serious. Jobs that have just been established: Due to a lack of experience, hazards may not be obvious or anticipated. Jobs that have been modified: New risks may be connected to adjustments to job practices. Jobs that are not commonly performed: Workers may be more at risk while taking on non-routine tasks, and a JSA offers a way to review dangers.
How do I divide the task into ""basic steps""?
After a job has been chosen for analysis, the next stage is to break the job into steps. A job step is defined as a segment of the operation necessary to advance the work. See examples below. Care must be taken not to make the steps too general. Missing specific steps and their associated hazards will not help. On the other hand, if they are too detailed, there will be too many steps. A rule of thumb is that most jobs can be described in less than ten steps. If more steps are required, you might want to divide the job into two segments, each with its separate JSA, or combine steps where appropriate. As an example, the job of changing a flat tire will be used in this document. An important point to remember is to keep the steps in their correct sequence. Any step which is out of order may miss serious potential hazards or introduce hazards which do not actually exist. Each step is recorded in sequence. Make notes about what is done rather than how it is done. Each item is started with an action verb. Appendix A (below) illustrates a format which can be used as a worksheet in preparing a JSA. Job steps are recorded in the left hand column, as shown here: Sequence of Events Potential Accidents or Hazards Preventive Measures Park vehicle Remove spare and tool kit Pry off hub cap and loosen lug bolts (nuts) And so on..... This part of the analysis is usually prepared by knowing or watching a worker do the job. The observer is normally the immediate supervisor. However, a more thorough analysis often happens by having another person, preferably a member of the health and safety committee, participate in the observation. Key points are less likely to be missed in this way. The job observer should have experienced and be capable in all parts of the job. To strengthen full co-operation and participation, the reason for the exercise must be clearly explained. The JSA is neither a time and motion study in disguise, nor an attempt to uncover individual unsafe acts. The job, not the individual, is being studied in an effort to make it safer by identifying hazards and making modifications to eliminate or reduce them. The worker's experience contributes in making job and safety improvements. The job should be observed during normal times and situations. For example, if a job is routinely done only at night, the JSA review should also be done at night. Similarly, only regular tools and equipment should be used. The only difference from normal operations is the fact that the worker is being observed. When completed, the breakdown of steps should be discussed by all the participants (always including the worker) to make that all basic steps have been noted and are in the correct order.
How do I """"identify potential hazards""""?
Once the basic steps have been recorded, potential hazards must be identified at each step. Based on observations of the job, knowledge of accident and injury causes, and personal experience, list the things that could go wrong at each step. A second observation of the job being performed may be needed. Since the basic steps have already been recorded, more attention can now be focused on each potential hazards. At this stage, no attempt is made to solve any problems which may have been detected. To help identify potential hazards, the job analyst may use questions such as these (this is not a complete list): Can any body part get caught in or between objects? Do tools, machines, or equipment present any hazards? Can the worker make harmful contact with moving objects? Can the worker slip, trip, or fall? Can the worker suffer strain from lifting, pushing, or pulling? Is the worker exposed to extreme heat or cold? Is excessive noise or vibration a problem? Is there a danger from falling objects? Is lighting a problem? Can weather conditions affect safety? Is harmful radiation a possibility? Can contact be made with hot, toxic, or caustic products? Are there dusts, fumes, mists, or vapours in the air? Potential hazards are listed in the middle column of the worksheet, numbered to match the corresponding job step. For example: Sequence of Events Potential Accidents or Hazards Preventive Measures Park vehicle a) Vehicle too close to passing traffic b) Vehicle on uneven, soft ground c) Vehicle may roll Remove spare and tool kit a) Strain from lifting spare Pry off hub cap and loosen lug bolts (nuts) a) Hub cap may pop off and hit you b) Lug wrench may slip And so on..... a) ... Again, all participants should jointly review this part of the analysis.
How do I """"determine preventive measures?""""
The final stage in a JSA is to determine ways to eliminate or control the hazards identified. The generally accepted measures, in order of preference, are: 1. Eliminate the hazard Elimination is the most effective measure. These techniques should be used to eliminate the hazards: Choose a different process Modify an existing process Substitute with less hazardous product Improve environment (e.g., ventilation) Modify or change equipment or tools 2. Contain the hazard If the hazard cannot be eliminated, contact might be prevented by using enclosures, machine guards, worker booths or similar devices. 3. Revise work procedures Consideration might be given to modifying steps which are hazardous, changing the sequence of steps, or adding additional steps (such as locking out energy sources). 4. Reduce the exposure These measures are the least effective and should only be used if no other solutions are possible. One way of minimizing exposure is to reduce the number of times the hazard is encountered. An example would be modifying machinery so that less maintenance is necessary. The use of appropriate personal protective equipment may be required. To reduce the severity of an incident, emergency facilities, such as eyewash stations, may need to be provided. In listing the preventive measures, do not use general statements such as """"be careful"""" or """"use caution"""". Specific statements which describe both what action is to be taken and how it is to be performed are preferable. The recommended measures are listed in the right hand column of the worksheet, numbered to match the hazard in question. For example: Sequence of Events Potential Accidents or Hazards Preventive Measures Park vehicle a) Vehicle too close to passing traffic b) Vehicle on uneven, soft ground c) Vehicle may roll a) Drive to area well clear of traffic. Turn on emergency flashers b) Choose a firm, level parking area c) Apply the parking brake; leave transmission in PARK; place blocks in front and back of the wheel diagonally opposite to the flat Remove spare and tool kit a) Strain from lifting spare a) Turn spare into upright position in the wheel well. Using your legs and standing as close as possible, lift spare out of truck and roll to flat tire. Pry off hub cap and loosen lug bolts (nuts) a) Hub cap may pop off and hit you b) Lug wrench may slip a) Pry off hub cap using steady pressure b) Use proper lug wrench; apply steady pressure slowly And so on..... a) ... a) ...
How should I make the information available to everyone else?
JSA is a useful technique for identifying hazards so that workers can take measures to eliminate or control hazards. Once the analysis is completed, the results must be communicated to all workers who are, or will be, performing that job. The side-by-side format used in JSA worksheets is not an ideal one for instructional purposes. Better results can be achieved by using a narrative-style communication format. For example, the work procedure based on the partial JSA developed as an example in this document might start out like this: 1. Park vehicle a) Drive vehicle off the road to an area well clear of traffic, even if it requires rolling on a flat tire. Turn on the emergency flashers to alert passing drivers so that they will not hit you. b) Choose a firm and level area for parking. You can jack up the vehicle to prevent rolling. c) Apply the parking brake, leave the transmission in PARK, place blocks in front and back of the wheel diagonally opposite the flat. These actions will also help prevent the vehicle from rolling. 2. Remove spare and tool kit a) To avoid back strain, turn the spare up into an upright position in its well. Stand as close to the trunk as possible and slide the spare close to your body. Lift out and roll to flat tire. 3. Pry off hub cap, loosen lug bolts (nuts) a) Pry off hub cap slowly with steady pressure to prevent it from popping off and striking you. b) Using the proper lug wrench, apply steady pressure slowly to loosen the lug bolts (nuts) so that the wrench will not slip, get lost or and hurt your knuckles. 4. And so on
Appendix A: Sample form for Job Safety Analysis Worksheet
Job Safety Analysis Worksheet Job: Analysis By: Reviewed By: Approved By: Date: Date: Date: Sequence of Steps Potential Incidents or Hazards Preventative Measures
Appendix B: Sample forms for Tasks and Job Inventory
Tasks with Potential Exposure to Hazardous Products or Physical Agents Analysis By: Reviewed By: Approved By: Date: Date: Date: Tasks Name of Product or Physical Agent Location Job Inventory of Hazardous Products Analysis By: Reviewed By: Approved By: Date: Date: Date: Name of Product Route of Entry and Physical State Controls"""