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What are basic techniques used in the study of the genetic material that are now being used in the mapping of the human genome

What are basic techniques used in the study of the genetic material that are now being used in the mapping of the human genome

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Guest [Entry]

"Studying the human DNA helps the scientist to unravel a lot of truths behind human gene expressions. In this manner scientist are more eager to study the human genome thus generating the human genome project that solely study millions of genes that consists the humans. They develop several methods and techniques for better understanding of the molecular structure of the human DNA. Scientist used varied techniques in order to study the human genome. These techniques are:

1. Restriction mapping that is used to map an unknown segment of the DNA.

2. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) mapping that is used to detect specific chromosomes.

3. PCR or Polymerase Chain Reactions that is used to amplify segments of DNA which can be applied during the conduct of Southern and Northern Blotting, DNA sequencing, DNA mapping and DNA fingerprinting.

4. Gel electrophoresis that is used in to separate fragments of DNA that can be applied in molecular markings, study and identification of DNA fragments, Southern and Northern Blotting.

5. Southern Blotting that is used to locate specific DNA sequence which can be applied in DNA fingerprinting and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism or RFLP.

6. Northern Blotting that is used to locate specific RNA sequence which can be applied in studying gene expression and detecting the specific mRNA sequence.

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