The term ""job design"" describes the structure of a group of tasks or a whole work. What tasks are completed is determined in part by job design. How the work is carried out. number of jobs completed. how the duties are completed. It takes into account every element that affects the work and arranges the tasks and material such that there is less likelihood that an employee will be in danger throughout the entire employment. The design of jobs includes administrative fields like: job switching expanded employment Machine/task pacing Work breaks hours of work A well-designed job will promote a variety of ""good"" body positions, have fair physical demands, call for a manageable amount of cerebral effort, and aid in the development of feelings of accomplishment and self-worth.
How does job design affect how work is organized?
The following issues can be resolved using the concepts of job design:
Little ability to control job Isolation
shiftworkDelays in hiring new employees
excessive hours worked
limited comprehension of the entire work process
Job design can be used to take into account the talents and diversity of people, especially those who are reentering the workforce after an illness or accident. For instance, job design may be taken into account as a means of easing workplace stress. For further details, go to the OSH Answers document Workplace Stress - General.
Is there a distinction between workspace design and job design?
Because both seek to maintain the physical demands of a job reasonable, the terms job design and workplace design are frequently used interchangeably.
Administrative adjustments that can help to better working conditions are referred to as job design.
Comparatively, workplace design focuses on addressing the workstation, the equipment, and the body position because these factors all affect how a person performs their work. Static positions, repetitive motions, and awkward body positions are decreased by good office design. The Ergonomics - Human Factors section of OSH Answers has more details about workplace design.
What qualities characterize an excellent job design?
By taking into account factors like work/rest schedules or pace of work, good job design takes into account employees' mental and physical attributes.
mental energy required for tedious or extraordinarily challenging tasks.
enables employee input Employees should have the choice to alter their actions in accordance with their own needs, job preferences, and the environment at work. gives workers a feeling of success and contribution. Include training so that staff members are aware of the right procedures for doing each work. offers healthy work/rest routines. enables occupations that require physical exertion to have a transition period. feedback on the performance of the staff members. reduces the need for force and energy use. brings static and dynamic work into balance. The process of designing jobs is ongoing. The objective is to adapt as employment circumstances or tasks change.
What are typical methods for job design?
In order to achieve good job design, administrative procedures that dictate what the employee performs, for how long, where they work, and when are used. Wherever possible, the employees are also given a choice. You can choose to look at the numerous duties of a single work in job design, or you can look at the design of a set of jobs. Job design strategies include: Job expansion: Job expansion expands the duties that employees perform in their work. Job expansion should make the work more interesting but may or may not provide workers additional responsibility. Job rotation involves switching between different tasks for employees. It assigns the group assignments to various workers. Job Enrichment: When learning new tasks or to enable greater participation and new chances, job enrichment enables employees to assume more responsibility, accountability, and independence. Employees may understand how the work techniques, layout, and handling processes relate to one another as well as how people and machines interact through work design (job engineering).
What are the main objectives of the job design?
Goals can include a wide range of topics and include:
Task Diversity Avoid excessively static body positions and repetitive actions to relieve boredom. Design jobs to have a variety of tasks that require changes in body position, muscles used, and mental activities. Job rotation and job enlargement are two strategies. For example, if an employee normally assembles parts, the job may be enlarged to include new tasks such as work planning, inspection / quality control, or maintenance. Alternatively, the tasks may include working in the same department, but changing tasks every hour. For example, in a laundry facility employees can rotate between various stations (sorting, washer, dryer, iron, etc) as long as it provides for a change in physical or mental expenditure. Skill Variety Through job enlargement and job enrichment, often new skills are required. Learning skills is often linked to job satisfaction, good mental health, and well-being. Work Breaks / Rest Breaks Rest breaks help alleviate the problems of unavoidable repetitive movements or static body positions. More frequent but shorter breaks (sometimes called """"micro breaks"""") are sometimes preferable to fewer long breaks. During rest breaks, encourage employees to change body position and to exercise. It is important that employees stretch and use different muscle groups. If the employee has been very active, a rest break should include a stationary activity or stretching. Allowance for an Adjustment Period When work demands physical effort, have an adjustment period for new employees and for all employees after holidays, layoffs, or illnesses. Allow time to become accustomed to the physical demands of work by gradually """"getting in shape."""" Employees who work in extreme hot or cold conditions also need time to acclimatize. Provide Training Training in correct work procedures and equipment operation is needed so that employees understand what is expected of them and how to work safely. Training should be organized, consistent and ongoing. It may occur in a classroom or on the job. Vary Mental Activities Tasks should be coordinated so that they are balanced during the day for the individual employee as well as balanced among a group of employees. You may want to allow the employee some degree of choice as to what types of mental tasks they want to do and when. This choice will allow the employee to do tasks when best suited to their 'alertness' patterns during the day. Some people may prefer routine tasks in the morning (such as checklists or filling in forms) and save tasks such as problem solving until the afternoon, or vice versa.
Can I use job design for teams?
Yes. Since most tasks are not done in isolation, job design is very often used for a group of employees. In some cases, teams can be created that have an overall responsibility for larger task or set of tasks. It is up to the team to decide how the job will be accomplished, which individual will do what tasks, and when. In most cases, team members will have many skills which allow them to change jobs from time to time. As with job design for individuals, additional opportunities such as inspection / quality control, maintenance, and related tasks such as ordering supplies are often assigned to the team in addition to their regular tasks.
What steps should I take when carrying out a job design project?
Although there are many ways to carry out job design, the following stages are essential: Do an assessment of current work practices. Is job design needed or feasible? Discuss the process with the employees and supervisors involved and be clear about the process, or any changes or training that will be involved. Do a task analysis. Examine the job and determine exactly what the tasks are. Consider what equipment and workstation features are important for completing the tasks. Identify problem areas. Design the job. Identify the methods for doing the work, work/rest schedules, training requirements, equipment needed and workplace changes. Coordinate the different tasks so each one varies mental activities and body position. Be careful not to under or overload the job. Implement the new job design gradually. You may want to start on a small scale or with a pilot project. Train employees in the new procedures and use of equipment. Allow for an adjustment period and time to gain experience with the new job design. Get Feedback and Re-evaluate job design on a continual basis. Make any necessary adjustments. Be sure to get feedback from all those involved. You may also want to establish a committee to represent the various groups involved. Job design should involve employees, unions, the health and safety committee and managers during the entire process. Participation of all parties increases communication and understanding. Be clear that purpose of the job design is to strengthen the operations and its workforce, not to eliminate jobs or sets of skills.
What is an example of a job design checklist?
Job Design Yes No Task and Skill variety Repetitive tasks – Are the same muscle groups or mental tasks done over and over? Static positions – Are there few or no opportunities to change position? Fast work pace – Is there muscle tension and stress? Work/Rest Schedules Long work period(s) – Is there potential for fatigue? Adjustment Period Are there allowances for adjustment periods or varying pace of work for new/returning employees? Training Have employees had adequate training? Mental variety Is there some variety or ability to choose what to do next? (Adapted from: Workplace Health and Wellness guide. CCOHS)"""